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The Reference list


The American Psychological Association(APA) has developed a method for source documentation that is most often used in the following departments: Social Studies and Humanities, Math, Science, Business and Information Technology, and Technological Education.  Here is some information on what to include within each type of APA citation, as well as some examples.  All necessary information can be located on the copyright page.

A book by a single author, multiple authors, or editor(s)

Author(s) or Editor(s). (Year of publication). Title of book. City of publication: Publisher.

Isler,C.& Cohall,A.T.(1996).The Watts teen health dictionary. Toronto: Grolier Publishing.

A newspaper or magazine article

Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of newspaper/magazine. Page number(s)/section.

Likmeta,B.& Erebara,G.(2009,April). Bull dozed lives.New Internationalist. p.11



An entire internet site

Author. (Date of posting or latest update).Title of site/page. Retrieved from URL

Canadian cancer society.(2009).Retrieved from

An article from a website

Author. Title of article. (Date of article).Title of site/page. Retrieved from URL

Kielberger,C.& Kielberger,M. Former child soldiers face psychological battle.(2009,May4).

Free the Children. Retrieved from


APA Style:   Putting together a References list

This list, placed on a separate page at the end of your essay and called References, must include all the sources you have quoted, paraphrased, or summarized. The References list provides all the information necessary for a reader to locate any sources you cite.

General Rules:

In what order should I place my entries?

  • Arrange your sources in alphabetical order by the last name of the author.
  • Give the last name and initials for authors of a particular work.  Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work.  List all the authors when there are up to six authors. When there are more than six authors, use "et al." for the other authors.
  • If you have more than one work by a particular author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest (a 2001 article would appear before a 2009 article).
  • If a source has no author, put it in the list by title, but leave out ‘A', ‘The" or ‘An" when determining the alphabetical order in the References list.

How do I space and format the entries?

  • Indent every additional line after the first line by five spaces.
  • Double space throughout.
  • Capitalize only the first word of the title and any proper names for books, articles, web pages, etc.  Capitalize magazine and journal titlesas they appear in the text you have read.
  • Use italics when including the title of a work.

 What do I need to reference?

  •  An original idea, opinion, theory, or research finding expressed, either verbally or in writing, by another person
  •  Facts, statistics, graphs, drawings, and other pieces of information that are not generally recognized as common knowledge
  •  Direct quotations of another person's spoken or written words
  •  Paraphrase of another person's spoken or written words



  1. Norton, M. P. (2013). Style Guides. Retrieved 11 2013, from DHS Library:
  2. Paiz, J., Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., et al. (2013, 03 01). General Format. Retrieved 11 04, 2013, from OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab:
  3. Toronto District School Board. (2010). Research Success @ Your Library - A Guide for Secondary Students. Toronto: Toronto District School Board.

 Further information on APA Format can be found on the Online Writing Lab- Purdue University at


For further information or to download a copy, please click Creating a Reference list (pdf 612 KB).